What Is a Plant-Based Diet? A Complete Beginner’s Guide

What Is a Plant-Based Diet? A Complete Beginner’s Guide

It's no secret that most Americans are meat eaters, savoring the rich flavors of steak, chicken, and more. But have you ever considered exploring a different path to nourishment that aligns with your individual health goals and supports a holistic, healthy lifestyle? 

Enter the world of plant-based eating, where a diet of wholesome grains, legumes, fruits, veggies, nuts, and more await you. Let's dive into what this way of eating is all about and why it might become your favorite culinary adventure.

What Is a Plant-Based Diet?

Naturally, a plant-based diet emphasizes foods primarily from plants. This includes fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. These nutrient-dense foods lay the foundation for a healthy diet rich in vitamins, minerals, and fibers.

While all these diets focus on plant-based foods, they vary in their inclusion of animal products:

  • Vegan Diet: Excludes all animal products, including dairy, eggs, and honey. Focuses solely on plant-based foods.

  • Vegetarian Diet: There are several types of vegetarian diets, most of which exclude meat, poultry, and fish but may include dairy or eggs

  • Flexitarian Diet: A more flexible approach that emphasizes plant-based foods but occasionally includes meat or other animal products.

  • Mediterranean Diet: Rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and olive oil, the traditional eating habits of Mediterranean countries inspire this diet. Fish is often included, but red meat is limited.

  • Pescatarian Diet: Similar to a vegetarian diet, but includes fish and seafood. This offers a way to incorporate the benefits of fish's omega-3 fatty acids while emphasizing plant-based eating.

Understanding these differences can help you choose the path that aligns with your personal preferences and values.

Why Choose a Plant-Based Way of Eating?

Eating healthy is good for you in general, but the benefits of a plant-based diet add some extra entries to the list. Continuing our exploration of the plant-based diet, let's dig deeper into the specific health benefits this nourishing way of eating can offer.

Heart Health

A plant-based diet is known to support heart health by maintaining healthy cholesterol and blood pressure levels. For starters, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are rich in fiber, which can be beneficial for cholesterol. Additionally, the emphasis on healthy fats and the reduced intake of saturated fats found in animal products can support heart health.

Brain Health

The various nutrients found in plant-based foods, including antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins, are essential for brain health. They can support cognitive function and memory and offer protection against free radical damage. Foods like nuts, seeds, and leafy greens are particularly beneficial for the brain. 

Gut Health

Plant-based diets support gut health through a high intake of fiber and fermented foods. This supports the growth of healthy gut bacteria, leading to good digestion and the efficient absorption of nutrients. The benefits of gut health even stretch up to the brain

Immune System Support

Plant-based eating is rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, which play a crucial role in supporting the immune system. Nutrient-dense foods like berries, citrus fruits, and legumes are rich in vitamin C and other nutrients that provide the body with the tools needed to naturally fight infections.

Weight Management

A focus on whole, unprocessed plant-based foods naturally supports weight loss and management. High in fiber and low in unhealthy fats, this way of eating encourages a feeling of fullness and helps control cravings. Research has shown that individuals following a plant-based diet often have lower body weight than those consuming a diet high in animal products.

What Nutrients Are Lacking in a Plant-Based Diet?

While a plant-based diet offers many health benefits, some nutrients might be less abundant and require careful consideration to include. 

Here's a closer look at them:


It's a common myth that plant-based diets are void of protein. Protein is indeed more difficult to come by without meat; however, with proper planning, getting enough protein from plant sources like legumes, tofu, tempeh, chickpeas, quinoa, and nuts is entirely achievable. The key lies in variety and incorporating several plant-based protein sources throughout the day.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is primarily found in animal foods and products. For those on a strict vegan diet, supplementation or fortified foods like plant-based milk and nutritional yeast might be necessary to meet the requirements. Regular blood testing to monitor B12 levels can also help ensure the body's needs are met.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D can be challenging to obtain from plant sources alone. Fortified plant-based milk, mushrooms exposed to sunlight, and sun exposure can help you obtain sufficient vitamin D. Vitamin D supplements may also be considered, especially in regions with limited sun exposure.


Plant-based iron is non-heme and less readily absorbed by the body compared to the heme iron found in meat. Consuming vitamin C-rich foods like oranges and strawberries with iron-rich plant foods like spinach and lentils can enhance absorption. Cooking in a cast-iron skillet can also increase the iron content of food.


In high concentrations in fatty fish, omega-3 might be less prominent in a plant-based diet. However, it can be found in algae supplements, flaxseed, chia seeds, and walnuts. Balancing omega-3 with omega-6 sources and possibly including a vegan omega-3 supplement could be beneficial for optimal health.


Dairy products are well-known sources of calcium. In a plant-based diet, one must turn to fortified plant-based milk, tofu, and leafy greens like kale and collard greens to ensure sufficient calcium intake. Almonds and chia seeds are also good sources of this essential mineral.


Zinc is another mineral that may require attention in a plant-based diet. While it's present in plant foods like legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, the phytates in these foods can reduce zinc absorption. 

Soaking, sprouting, or fermenting these foods can enhance zinc availability. Zinc is essential for immune function and wound healing, making it an essential aspect of the diet.


Lastly, plant-based diet followers are at a higher risk of developing an iodine deficiency. Iodine is essential for thyroid function and is primarily found in dairy products and seafood. 

While seaweed can be a good source, it's variable in iodine content. A plant-based eater might consider using iodized salt or an iodine supplement, particularly if they consume a low-salt diet.

What Are Some Delicious and Nutritious Plant-Based Foods?

Embracing a plant-based diet doesn't mean you have to compromise on taste or variety. Quite the opposite! From hearty grains to succulent fruits, the world of plant-based foods offers a colorful palette of flavors and textures

Not only that, but these foods feature a lot of the nutrients that aren’t as easy to come by in a plant-based diet, making them essential for avoiding nutritional deficiencies: 

  • Quinoa: A grain rich in complete protein and fiber, quinoa can be a base for salads and bowls or used as a side dish.

  • Brown Rice: Nutrient-rich and hearty, brown rice complements stir-fries, casseroles, and soups.

  • Hummus: This delicious spread made from chickpeas can be enjoyed with veggies, pita bread, or as a sandwich spread.

  • Whole Wheat Pasta: A wholesome alternative to refined pasta, whole wheat pasta is excellent for adding whole grains to your diet.

  • Black Beans: Great in tacos, soups, or salads, black beans add flavor, protein, and fiber.

  • Sweet Potatoes: Versatile and nutritious, sweet potatoes can be roasted, mashed, or added to stews.

  • Tempeh: A fermented soy product with a nutty flavor, tempeh is a protein-packed addition to sandwiches, salads, or stir-fries.

  • Avocado: Rich in healthy fats, avocados can be used in salads, on toast, or as a creamy addition to smoothies.

  • Chia Seeds: Perfect for puddings or as a thickening agent in recipes, chia seeds are a source of omega-3 and fiber.

  • Kale: This leafy green can be massaged into salads, sautéed, or added to smoothies for a nutrient boost.

  • Almond Milk: A creamy and dairy-free alternative that's great for cereals, coffee, or simply enjoyed by the glass.

  • Lentils: These legumes can be used in soups, salads, or as a meat substitute in various dishes.

  • Oatmeal: Whole-grain oats are perfect for breakfast bowls, baking, or even savory dishes.

  • Cauliflower: This versatile vegetable is a favorite in plant-based cuisine, from roasted florets to cauliflower rice.

  • Berries: Strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries are delicious fresh, in desserts, or as part of a fruit salad.

  • Tofu: With the right seasoning and cooking method, tofu can be a tasty and protein-rich addition to any meal.

  • Walnuts: A crunchy snack on their own, walnuts are also great in salads, baking, or pesto.

  • Mushrooms: With their meaty texture, mushrooms are a satisfying substitute in burgers, stews, or grilled dishes.

  • Olives: Rich in healthy fats, olives add a salty and flavorful touch to salads, pastas, or pizzas.

  • Pumpkin Seeds: These seeds can be roasted for a snack or sprinkled over salads and soups for added crunch.

  • Cashews: Whether eaten on their own or as nut butter, cashews are rich in healthy fats, protein, and magnesium. 

How Do I Start a Plant-Based Diet as a Beginner?

A healthy plant-based diet is all about variety and balance. Aim to fill your plate with various colorful fruits, vegetables, and other whole foods. 

Consulting a dietitian or nutritionist can help you create a personalized meal plan that ensures you get the proper servings of all food groups. Adopting a plant-based meal approach doesn't have to be daunting. 

If you're new to this style of eating, here's a simple guide to get started:

  • Breakfast: Start with fortified oat-based cereals topped with fresh fruits and almond milk or a smoothie blended with spinach, bananas, and cashews for a protein kick.
  • Lunch: Opt for a hearty salad with mixed greens, chickpeas, roasted sweet potatoes, and a creamy cashew dressing or a vegetable stir-fry with tofu.
  • Dinner: Explore whole-grain pasta dishes with marinara sauce and nutritional yeast or lentil and vegetable stew with brown rice.

Remember, transitioning to a plant-based meal approach is a journey. Start small, maybe by incorporating Meatless Mondays, and gradually build up from there.

The Bottom Line

Embarking on a plant-based journey is not merely a shift in dietary choices but a step toward a more compassionate, health-conscious lifestyle. By embracing a variety of whole foods, including delicious and nutrient-rich options like those listed above, you create a healthful diet to nourish your body.

The beauty of a healthy plant-based diet lies in its adaptability to individual preferences and needs. Whether you're motivated by environmental concerns, health benefits, or a desire for culinary adventure, there's a place for you at the plant-based table.

Remember, there's no one-size-fits-all approach here. Trust yourself, explore the flavors, and don't hesitate to seek professional guidance from a health expert specializing in plant-based nutrition.

At MOSH, we're here to support you in this fulfilling journey. We invite you to explore our blog to learn more about the benefits of plant-based eating and how to tailor such a diet to your unique lifestyle. The path to a vibrant, healthy plant-based life is waiting, and we can't wait to walk it with you!


Patterns of Red and Processed Meat Consumption Across North America | PMC

What Is a Plant-Based Diet and Why Should You Try It? | Harvard Health

Plant-Based Diets and Cardiovascular Health | PMC

Functional Constituents of Plant-Based Foods Boost Immunity Against Acute and Chronic Disorders | PMC

A Plant-Based Diet for Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Treatment | PMC

Vitamin D in Plants: A Review of Occurrence, Analysis, and Biosynthesis | NCBI Bookshelf

Vitamin B12 Intake From Animal Foods, Biomarkers, and Health Aspects | PMC

Biochemistry, Iron Absorption | NCBI Bookshelf

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Plant-Based Diets | PCRM

Vegan Calcium | How to Get It | The Vegan Society

Effect of Vegetarian Diets on Zinc Status: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies in Humans | NCBI Bookshelf

Iodine Deficiency in Vegetarians and Vegans | PMC

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